Canada Letter

Insights on Canada

Canada is fortunate to have Anita Anand serve as Defence Minister

This long-form article, authored by Shannon Proudfoot for MacLeans, offers readers a deeper understanding and appreciation for the demands that have been placed on The Honourable Anita Anand in these challenging times. »

Anand has made a good impression within the CAF and among defence experts. She’s perceived as thoughtful; she takes briefs well, asks smart questions and can quickly drill down to the essence of an issue. It’s easy to sit on files at defence, because it’s a big, cumbersome machine where many of the gears can’t grind into motion until the minister gives the word. It requires a person willing to make a call rather than dithering about media coverage, polls and political calculations.

Anand has demonstrated an early willingness to do so. When she was sworn in, another former Supreme Court justice, Louise Arbour, was deep into a year-long review on sexual misconduct, and had already recommended to Sajjan that criminal cases be transferred to civilian authorities rather than continuing to let the military police itself. As defence minister, Sajjan was viewed as detached, overly deferential to the chief of the defence staff and prone to hoping issues would go away rather than dealing with them. A week into the job, Anand announced she was accepting Arbour’s recommendations immediately.

Canada’s urban centres ranked by population growth from 2016 to 2021

All of Canada’s urban centres showed positive population growth from 2016 to 2021. For the first time in six censuses, no urban centres in Canada saw a population decline. (Additional notes below)

Canada (overall national average) » 5.2%
All metropolitan areas » 6.1%

  1. Kelowna » 14.0%
  2. Chilliwack » 12.1%
  3. Kamloops » 10.0%
  4. London » 10.0%
  5. Nanaimo » 10.0%
  6. Kitchener–Cambridge–Waterloo » 9.9%
  7. Oshawa » 9.3%
  8. Halifax » 9.1%
  9. Guelph » 9.0%
  10. Moncton » 8.9%
  11. Ottawa–Gatineau » 8.5%
  12. Abbotsford–Mission » 8.4%
  13. Barrie » 8.0%
  14. Victoria » 8.0%
  15. Saskatoon » 7.6%
  16. Belleville–Quinte West » 7.5%
  17. Brantford » 7.4%
  18. Edmonton » 7.3%
  19. Vancouver » 7.3%
  20. Sherbrooke » 7.2%
  21. Kingston » 7.1%
  22. St. Catharines–Niagara » 6.8%
  23. Winnipeg » 6.6%
  24. Calgary » 6.4%
  25. Windsor » 6.0%
  26. Fredericton » 5.8%
  27. Peterborough » 5.7%
  28. Lethbridge » 5.5%
  29. Regina » 5.3%
  30. Hamilton » 5.0%
  31. Drummondville » 4.6%
  32. Montréal » 4.6%
  33. Toronto » 4.6%
  34. Québec » 4.1%
  35. Saint John » 3.5%
  36. Trois-Rivières » 3.5%
  37. Greater Sudbury » 2.8%
  38. St. John’s » 2.0%
  39. Thunder Bay » 1.3%
  40. Red Deer » 0.4%
  41. Saguenay » 0.01%

Note » Each of the 41 urban centres listed above has a population of at least 100,000 people.

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Canada is the second largest country on Earth

The Earth’s 10 largest countries (as calculated by total area) »

  1. Russia » 17,098,246 km² (6,601,670 sq mi)
  2. Canada » 9,984,670 km² (3,855,100 sq mi)
  3. China » 9,596,961 km² (3,705,407 sq mi)
  4. United States » 9,525,067 km² (3,677,649 sq mi)
  5. Brazil » 8,515,767 km² (3,287,956 sq mi)
  6. Australia » 7,692,024 km² (2,969,907 sq mi)
  7. India » 3,287,263 km² (1,269,219 sq mi)
  8. Argentina » 2,780,400 km² (1,073,500 sq mi)
  9. Kazakhstan » 2,724,900 km² (1,052,100 sq mi)
  10. Algeria » 2,381,741 km² (919,595)

Source » Wikipedia

Canada’s top five largest cities, ranked by population

With the spring 2021 census, we learned Canada was home to 36,991,981 people, 1.8 million (5.2 percent) more in just five years.

Among the almost 37 million people living in Canada in the Spring of 2021, close to 27.3 million, nearly three in four, lived in one of Canada’s 41 urban centres.

The 41 urban centres, all have a population of 100,000 or more people, and accounted for most of Canada’s population growth from 2016 to 2021.

This list ranks the cities with populations of 1 million or more people.

  1. Toronto » 2.8 million people
  2. Montréal » 1.8M
  3. Calgary » 1.3 million
  4. Edmonton » 1 million
  5. Ottawa »1 million

Source » Statistics Canada

5 most populated downtowns in Canada

Canada‘s most populated downtowns, ranked »

  1. Toronto » 275,931 people
  2. Vancouver » 121,932
  3. Montréal » 109,509
  4. Ottawa » 67,169
  5. Edmonton » 55,387

Vancouver was shown to have the most densely populated downtown, with 18,837 inhabitants per square kilometre, followed by Toronto at 16,608 inhabitants per square kilometre.

By comparison, there were 28,668 people per square kilometre in Manhattan in 2020, the densest borough in New York.

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10 most populated cities in Canada

The 2021 Canadian census recorded the population of the country to be 36,991,981. That’s an increase of 5.2 percent above the 2016 census, which recorded 35,151,728.

Canada continues to urbanize. Close to 27.3 million people, or nearly three in four Canadians, lived in one of the countries 41 urban centres.

These are the 10 most populated in Canada »

  1. Toronto » 2,794,356 people
  2. Montréal » 1,762,949
  3. Calgary » 1,306,784
  4. Ottawa » 1,017,449
  5. Edmonton » 1,010,899
  6. Winnipeg » 749,607
  7. Mississauga » 717,961
  8. Vancouver » 662,248
  9. Brampton » 656,480
  10. Hamilton » 569,353

Source » Statistics Canada

Fun Fact » Most already know that Toronto is the most populated municipality in Canada.  Did you know that Toronto (2.8M) is also the 4th largest city in North America, after Mexico City (9.8M), New York City (8.8M), and Los Angeles (3.9M).

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